I had checked and double checked every setting I could imagine and it still would not work.
Every device had
Settings -> iCloud -> Documents & Data set to
every App1 has
use iCloud set to
To get it to work I did the following:
- Turn off "Documents & Data" in iCloud settings
- Turn off "Use iCloud" for each iWork app
- Launch Pages, Numbers or Keynote. Each App will now ask you if you want to use iCloud, you'll want to say yes to this.
You might be able to get iCloud to sync by just turning "Documents & Data" off in settings. I haven't tried that, as it works for me now and I really don't want to break it again.
I have filed a bug report3 for this issue with Apple.